Diagnostic medical microbiology is concerned with the etiologic diagnosis of infection. Laboratory procedures used in the diagnosis of infectious disease in humans include the following:
1. Morphologic identification of the agent in stains of specimens or sections of tissues (light and electron
2. Culture isolation and identification of the agent.
3. Detection of antigen from the agent by immunologic assay (latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassay
[EIA], etc) or by fluorescein-labeled (or peroxidase-labeled) antibody stains.
4. DNA -DNA or DNA -RNA hybridization to detect pathogen-specific genes in patients' specimens.
5. Detection and amplification of organism nucleic acid in patients' specimens.
6. Demonstration of meaningful antibody or cell-mediated immune responses to an infectious agent.
In the field of infectious diseases, laboratory test results depend largely on the quality of the specimen, …