History Of Microbiology

Table 1.1 Some Important Events in the Development of Microbiology
Date Microbiological History Other Historical Events
1546 Fracastoro suggests that invisible organisms cause disease Publication of Copernicus’s work on the heliocentric solar system (1543)
1590–1608 Jansen develops first useful compound microscope Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1600–1601)
1676 Leeuwenhoek discovers “animalcules” J. S. Bach and Handel born (1685)
1688 Redi publishes work on spontaneous generation of maggots Isaac Newton publishes the Principia (1687)
Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae (1735)
Mozart born (1756)
1765–1776 Spallanzani attacks spontaneous generation
1786 Müller produces first classification of bacteria French Revolution (1789)
1798 Jenner introduces cowpox vaccination for smallpox Beethoven’s first symphony (1800)
The battle of Waterloo and the defeat of Napoleon (1815)
Faraday demonstrates the principle of an electric motor (1821)
1838–1839 Schwann and Schleiden, the Cell Theory England issues first postage stamp (1840)
1835–1844 Bassi discovers that silkworm disease is caused by a fungus
and proposes that many diseases are microbial in origin Marx’s Communist Manifesto (1848)
1847–1850 Semmelweis shows that childbed fever is transmitted by Velocity of light first measured by Fizeau (1849)
physicians and introduces the use of antiseptics to
prevent the disease
Clausius states the first and second laws of thermodynamics (1850)
1849 Snow studies the epidemiology of a cholera epidemic Graham distinguishes between colloids and crystalloids
in London
Melville’s Moby Dick (1851)
Otis installs first safe elevator (1854)
Bunsen introduces the use of the gas burner (1855)
1857 Pasteur shows that lactic acid fermentation is due to
a microorganism
1858 Virchow states that all cells come from cells Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859)
1861 Pasteur shows that microorganisms do not arise by American Civil War (1861–1865)
spontaneous generation Mendel publishes his genetics experiments (1865)
Cross-Atlantic cable laid (1865)
1867 Lister publishes his work on antiseptic surgery Dostoevski’s Crime and Punishment (1866)
1869 Miescher discovers nucleic acids Franco-German War (1870–1871)
1876–1877 Koch demonstrates that anthrax is caused by Bell invents telephone (1876)
Bacillus anthracis
Edison’s first light bulb (1879)
1880 Laveran discovers Plasmodium, the cause of malaria
1881 Koch cultures bacteria on gelatin Ives produces first color photograph (1881)
Pasteur develops anthrax vaccine
1882 Koch discovers tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis First central electric power station constructed by Edison (1882)
1884 Koch’s postulates first published Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
Metchnikoff describes phagocytosis
Autoclave developed
Gram stain developed
1885 Pasteur develops rabies vaccine First motor vehicles developed by Daimler (1885–1886)
Escherich discovers Escherichia coli, a cause of diarrhea
1886 Fraenkel discovers Streptococcus pneumoniae, a cause
of pneumonia
1887 Petri dish (plate) developed by Richard Petri
1887–1890 Winogradsky studies sulfur and nitrifying bacteria Hertz discovers radio waves (1888)
1889 Beijerinck isolates root nodule bacteria Eastman makes box camera (1888)
1890 Von Behring prepares antitoxins for diphtheria and tetanus
1892 Ivanowsky provides evidence for virus causation of
tobacco mosaic disease First zipper patented (1895)
1894 Kitasato and Yersin discover Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague
1895 Bordet discovers complement Röntgen discovers X rays (1895)
1896 Van Ermengem discovers Clostridium botulinum, the cause
of botulism
1897 Buchner prepares extract of yeast that ferments Thomson discovers the electron (1897)
Ross shows that malaria parasite is carried by the mosquito Spanish-American War (1898)
1899 Beijerinck proves that a virus particle causes the tobacco
mosaic disease
1900 Reed proves that yellow fever is transmitted by the mosquito Planck develops the quantum theory (1900)
1902 Landsteiner discovers blood groups First electric typewriter (1901)         
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