DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION BY ANATOMIC SITE:
Bacteriologic examination of the urine is done mainly when signs or symptoms point to urinary tract infection,
renal insufficiency , or hypertension. It should always be done in persons with suspected systemic infection or fever of unknown origin. It is desirable for women in the first trimester of pregnancy .
Urine secreted in the kidney is sterile unless the kidney is infected. Uncontaminated bladder urine is also
normally sterile. The urethra, however , contains a normal flora, so that normal voided urine contains small
numbers of bacteria. Because it is necessary to distinguish contaminating organisms from etiologically
important organisms, only quantitative urine examination can yield meaningful results.
The following steps are essential in proper urine examination.
PROPER COLLECTION OF SPECIMEN
Proper collection of the specimen is the single most important step in a urine cu…